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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://digital.lib.ou.ac.lk/docs/handle/701300122/137

Title: Genesis of Metasomatic Sapphirine-Corundum-Spinel-bearing
Authors: Fernando, G.W.A.R.
Issue Date: 2001
Publisher: University of Mainz
Abstract: The goal of the present study is to understand the mechanism of mass transfer, the composition and the role of fluids during crustal metasomatism in high-temperature metamorphic terranes. A well constrained case study, a locality at Rupaha, Sri Lanka was selected. It is located in the Highland Complex of Sri Lanka, which represents a small, but important fragment of the super-continent Gondwana. Excellent exposures of ultramafic rocks, which are embedded in granulites, were found at 10 localities. These provide a unique background for understanding the metasomatic processes. The boundary between the ultramafic and the granulite rocks are lined with metasomatic reaction zones up to 50cm in width. Progressing from the ultramafics to the granulite host rock, three distinct zones with the following mineral assemblages can be distinguished: (1). phlogopite + spinel + sapphirine, (2). spinel + sapphirine + corundum and (3). corundum + biotite + plagioclase. In order to assess the P-T-t path, the peak metamorphism and the exhumation history were constrained using different thermobarometers, as well as a diffusion model of garnet zoning. A maximum temperature of 875 ± 20oC (Opx-Cpx thermometer) and at the peak pressure of 9.0 ± 0.1 kbar (Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qtz) was calculated for the silicic granulite. The ultramafic rocks recorded a peak temperature of 840 ± 70oC (Opx-Cpx thermometer) at 9 kbar. Coexisting spinel and sapphirine from the reaction zone yield a temperature of 820 ± 40oC. This is in agreement with the peak-temperatures recorded in the adjacent granulites and ultramafics rocks. The structural concordance of the ultramafic rocks with the siliceous granulite host rock further support the suggestion, that all units have experienced the same peak metamorphism. Diffusion modeling of retrograde zoning in garnets from mafic granulites suggests a three-step cooling history. A maximum cooling rate of 1oC/Ma is estimated during the initial stage of cooling, followed by a cooling rate of ~30oC/Ma. The outermost rims of garnet indicate a slightly slower cooling rate at about 10-15oC/Ma. The sequences of mineral zones, containing a variety of Al-rich, silica undersaturated minerals in the reaction zones separating the ultramafic rocks from the silica-rich rocks can be explained by a diffusion model. This involves the diffusion of Mg from ultramafic rocks across the layers, and K and Si diffuse in opposite direction. Chemical potential of Mg and Si generated continuous monotonic gradient, allowing steady state diffusional transport across the profile. The strong enrichment in Al, and the considerable loss of Si,during the formation of reaction bands can be inferred from isocon diagrams. Some Al was probably added to the reaction zones, while Si was lost. This is most likely due to fluids percolating parallel to the zones at the boundary of the rock units. This study has shown that not only pressure and temperature conditions but most importantly PH2O and the concentration of the chlorine and fluorine in aqueous fluids also control the mass transport in different geological environments.
URI: http://digital.lib.ou.ac.lk/docs/handle/701300122/137
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